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How is Artificial Intelligence Impacting the World of Accounting?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the buzzword in business these days…

Will AI replace human accountants?

The short answer – no.


Because AI cannot flag errors, recode, interpret data correctly all the time, nor communicate with emotional understanding.

By the way, did you know that there are three different types of AI?

They are:

  1. Machine learning – this is where software recognizes patterns in data.
  2. Predictive AI – this is where the software uses those learned patterns to suggest actions to users.
  3. Generative AI – where software uses learned patterns to create new content, i.e. writing text and creating images.

AI in accounting is largely of the Predictive type. It is used to extract data from source documents, and to suggest actions (in coding and matching transactions).

Let us explore how AI is used in the suite of software we use for our clients at ControllershipPLUS.

Source Document Extraction

Here in our front-end software called HubDoc AI goes to work in extracting the core details from supplier bills, in addition to other source documents.

Within seconds of a supplier bill being uploaded or emailed to HubDoc the key details are extracted automatically:

  1. Vender name.
  2. Date due.
  3. Total amount.
  4. Taxes, including GST, PST, and HST.

HubDoc, based on predictive AI will suggest the account code to code the expense to. It will suggest this based on the past coding of that supplier.

For instance, Telus, a large telecom provider in Canada will usually be coded to “telephone” expense, if that is where you coded it in the past.

However, if the Telus bill is not for a telephone expense, rather it is for cell phones purchased, it may need to be coded somewhere else, like a capital account, “Telephone equipment.”

Human intervention is needed at this point because although predictive AI is good at extraction and making suggestions, it is not smart enough to know what to do with a new situation!

A highly intelligent accounting technician is needed to review and watch for exceptions and recode the suggested coding by AI.

In accounting, our human technicians are definitely much smarter than the AI.

Where predictive AI shines here is in the time saving of mind-numbing data entry tasks.

Okay, let us head on over to Xero next, where these extracted documents have been sent to within these now coded transactions….

Xero – Here AI Makes Suggestions

Inside Xero, the predictive AI matches transactions fed into it directly from the bank feeds.

It suggests which transactions likely match what went through your bank accounts.

The risk here in relying on AI is that the AI is not that smart. It only can suggest a match. If there are multiple transactions with the same dollar amount if you blindly accept the suggestion from AI, you may be wrong.

Here again, human intervention is required to manage and review, and not unconsciously clicking the “OKAY” button.

Xero and Accounts Receivable

Inside the bank feeds, Xero’s AI will suggest matches of deposits. This saves time in looking up the correct transactions to reconcile.

Unpaid deposits remain in aged accounts receivable.

Xero sends reminders of outstanding invoices to your customers and clients. I am not sure how this can rightly be called AI as it is just a routine, fixed scheduling task. Nevertheless, it does save time for the accounting technician.

Bills approved for payment now are sent over to Plooto…

AI and Plooto

The key features of AI in Plooto are:

  1. Two-way synchronization. Bills are automatically synced to Plooto from Xero, along with all attached source documents. Once they are paid in Plooto, they are synced back to Xero and recorded as a payment against the bill just paid.
  2. Plooto allows for customizable approval processes. These save time by reducing chasing people physically in different locations to sign cheques.
  3. Plooto leverages AI to encrypt all date keeping everything tight and secure.

The predictive AI here is not really thinking for you in a way that you might imagine AI to be working. It does, though, save accounting technicians from doing boring, repetitive tasks.

Fathom and Smart Prediction

Our high-end reporting software, Fathom, picks up all the month-end date from Xero on a regular, automated basis.

Inside of the forecasting module of Fathom it uses what it calls Smart Prediction to predict future revenue and expenses when doing a forecast.

Again, highly intelligent accounting technicians are required to intervene and not assume that the software’s predictions are written on stone tablets!

In Summary

Predictive AI really has stripped many mundane, repetitive tasks from accounting technicians. It has freed them up to add true intelligence to the mix. To analyse and override and to ensure that transactions are coded correctly, and that cash-flow projections make sense based on our knowledge of our client’s businesses.

Thank you for reading…





7 Reasons to Switch from Wire Transfers and EFTs to Plooto

We live in a fast-paced digital world, and cheque writing has gone the way of the horse and buggy (sorry to all pen and paper lovers).

The fact is that paper cheques, sent in the mail, are significantly more insecure than paying and receiving money online. Physical cheques are stolen from mailboxes, acid washed, re-inscribed and cashed by the thief.

For our clients, we have been paying all their bills online for years. The service we use for this is called Plooto, and they are awesome!

Paying bills via wire transfer or Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT), using the big Canadian Chartered Banks is time consuming and expensive. And it is not automated. Well, okay, it is partially automated in the sense it is digital. It is just not synced to your accounting system. Plooto is.

Here are 7 reasons to make the switch from cheques and EFTs to Plooto….

Reason Number One – It is Fast

All of your bills in Xero (or QuickBooks Online) are synced to Plooto. The instant you log into Plooto, there are all your approved bills, ready to pay.

When you are an e-signer (like a cheque signer only online) you will receive an email showing you the bills that are ready to be e-signed.

You login directly by clicking a link in your email.

You will see each bill that is ready to pay, with the source document attached.

Think of it like this. It is like your bookkeeper has recorded all the bills, printed the physical cheques, and brought the cheques with source documents attached to the cheque. He or she places on your desk, and you sign away.

The difference is that you can be anywhere.

All of this processing is fast!

Reason Number Two – It Saves Time

Because Plooto processes are online and fast, it saves time…

Time is saved in a few ways:

  1. The lack of physical movement of bills and cheques from office to office.
  2. The fact that the payment is synced back to your accounting software and recorded as a payment against the bill being paid saves the time of the bookkeeper having to record each payment as in the old systems.
  3. You can have multiple approvers and the flow is all digital, online. Once you approve, if you have a secondary approver, the bills will instantly go to them to e-sign. This saves a lot of time.
  4. The source documents are all attached to each transaction, so you are no longer hunting around for the physical copies of bills.
  5. You can pay multiple bills at one time, which saves time.
Reason Number Three – Pay Bills From Anywhere

Your bookkeeping Team can be in Vancouver. Your headquarters could be in Toronto. No problem.

Everything flows online and is accessible on your browser and through a browser app on your phone.

You can be on holidays and ensure bills get paid on time.

First and second approvers no longer need to be in the same office. They can be separated by oceans!

Reason Number Four – Multi Person Approval Workflows

You can set up a complex Approval Matrix with bookkeepers setting up the bills which in turn go to, for instance, a Department Head.

From there it can be routed automatically to the e-signers. For payments under, say, $1,000 perhaps maybe only one signature is required. If it is greater than $1,000 then 2 e-signers.

You have the power with Plooto to set up as simple or complex a Matrix as you want or need.

Reason Number Five – It Avoids Errors

Errors are avoided as follows…

Once the bill is recorded, checked, and approved in your accounting software, the source document gets attached to each transaction in Xero or QuickBooks.

This source document is attached to each transaction in Plooto, so you can look one more time before paying.

Multiple approvers means more than one set of eyes on each transaction.

The payment is synced back to Xero or QuickBooks which avoids duplicate entries.

To summarize, recording data once only, having multiple approvers looking, and source documents attached for a final look all lead to error avoidance.

Reason Number Six- It is International

Plooto can easily and seamlessly pay vendors and contractors in over 50 countries.

You do not need to call your bank manager to assist with a wire transfer and all this entails.

We have made many international payments with Plooto, and we have encountered no errors in doing these transfers. It is like paying a local supplier.

Reason Number Seven – It is Secure

Plooto uses Multi-Factor Authentication to login to its platform. The money is transferred directly form your bank account into your supplier’s account.

By the way, if they do not want to give you their banking information, as long as they have online banking, you can just email them the transfer and they login to their bank and deposit the funds themselves.

Multiple approvers make it more secure because more eyes have been on each transaction.

There is no risk of physical interception of cheques.

Plooto has banking level security and encryption running in the background.

They started in Canada in 2015 and have been a reliable and trustworthy partner of ours for many years now.

Thanks for reading….


Critical Ratios You Must Track in Your Business for Success – Part 3

Over the last two weeks I wrote about how the three main financial statements of your business contain five sections as follows:

  1. Assets (the things you own)
  2. Liabilities (what you owe)
  3. Equity (what’s leftover for you)

(the above 3 sections are on the Balance Sheet)

  1. Revenues (the inflows into your business)
  2. Expenses (the outflows from your business)

(the above 2 sections are on your Income Statement)

To understand the story of your business month by month, year by year you need a sharper focus.

That sharper focus can begin with ratios.

Two weeks ago I wrote about liquidity ratios and profitability ratios.

Last week I wrote about Activity Ratios, namely Average Days Inventory, Average Days Receivable, Average Days Payable, and Cash Conversion Cycle.

This week I will write about…

Leverage Ratios

Leverage ratios measure the overall debt level of a business.

It is an indication of the business’s ability to repay new and existing loans.

A very low ratio can indicate a very cautious business that may be missing out on growth opportunities.

On the other hand, in a tough economy, too much debt can cripple your ability to repay your debt.

When interest rates are very low debt can be seductive, almost like an offer of free money.

However, when they go up, unless you have a highly profitable business and excellent cash-flow the interest expense alone can cause severe financial distress.

The way to manage your debt is to create a Forecast that looks at what could happen if rates climb and create scenarios for that possibility.

The other thing to do is to lock your loans into the longest term possible with a fixed rate of interest.

Here are two examples of leverage ratios…

Debt to Equity Ratio

This is a very simple ratio, calculated as follows:

Total liabilities divided by total shareholder’s equity.

A high ratio will indicate a business that is highly debt dependent and may have challenges getting additional loans if the economy is in a recession.

Bankers will look at a low ratio as being favorable to issue new loans. They will see that the shareholders have financed most of the assets.

Another leverage ratio is…

Debt to Asset Ratio

This ratio will indicate the proportion of assets financed by debt.

A ratio of greater than one will be an indicator that most of the assets are financed by debt.

The above two ratios indicate how much your business is at risk of economic downturns and increasing interest rates.

The next ratio will tell you how much profit you have to service your debt…

Debt Service Coverage Ratio

A high debt service coverage ratio tells you how much you have to cover your interest and principal debt payments.

First, you need to determine your EBITDA. This stands for Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization.

You take your EBITDA and divide it by your total interest and principal payments.

A high ratio here is preferable.

It will indicate that you have a lot of coverage to pay your financial obligations.

In Summary

Bankers will look at your leverage ratios closely to determine if you qualify for new loans.

Overall, the four sets of ratios we covered in these past three weeks tell you a story about your business that just looking at the main five sections will not.

Your profitability ratios will tell you how profitable your business is, and whether you are charging enough for your products and services. It will tell you how efficient you are in managing your business resources to generate a profit.

Your liquidity ratios will inform you of your ability to pay your obligations as they become due.

Your activity ratios will tell you two things:

  1. How well you are managing your working capital – cash, accounts receivable and inventory.
  2. How quickly you convert your working capital assets into cash.

Your leverage ratios will tell you and your banker how leveraged you are, and whether you have more than enough to cover your interest and principal payments.

Thanks for reading…

Critical Ratios You Must Track in Your Business for Success – Part 2

Last week I wrote about how the three main financial statements of your business contain five sections as follows:

  1. Assets (the things you own)
  2. Liabilities (what you owe)
  3. Equity (what’s leftover for you)

(the above 3 sections are on the Balance Sheet)

  1. Revenues (the inflows into your business)
  2. Expenses (the outflows from your business)

(the above 2 sections are on your Income Statement)

To understand the story of your business month by month, year by year you need a sharper focus.

That sharper focus can begin with ratios.

Last week I wrote about liquidity ratios and profitability ratios.

To recap, liquidity ratios – the main one being your current ratio – tells you how well you are able to pay your bills as they come due.

The profitability ratios include your Gross Profit Margin, your Net Profit Margin and Return on Equity. These tell you how profitable your business is and what your return on investment is.

This week I will write about…

Activity Ratios

There are three main activity ratios:

  1. Average days inventory
  2. Average days receivable
  3. Average days payable

The above three ratios can be summarized in what is called your Cash Conversion Cycle.

The intent of the above ratios is to show you how quickly you sell your inventory, convert your accounts receivable to cash and the time you take to pay your bills in order to conserve cash.

First, let us look at…

Average Days Inventory

To calculate this ratio, you first take your opening inventory for the period (month or year) and add this to your closing inventory. Then divide by two.

Take this average and multiply by the days in the period (for example 30 or 31 for a month) and divide this by your Cost of Goods Sold for the same period.

The smaller the number the better. A smaller number means you are selling your inventory more quickly. A longer number of days means your cash is tied up in inventory.

The next ratio is….

Average Days Receivable

This measures the average number of days customers take to pay for your goods or services.

For example, if you give your customers terms of 30 days, and your days receivable are running at, say, 25 days, then you are doing great.

You calculate your days receivable as follows:

Opening Accounts Receivable at beginning of the period (month for instance) plus Closing Accounts Receivable at end of the period divided by two.

Now, take the average accounts receivable times the number of days in the period (30 or 31 for a month) and divide that number by your Revenue for that same period.

Even if you have a small number, which is great, it is important to review each aged account receivable.

This is because fast payers can bring the average down, hiding slow payers.

In a tough economy, you are only as successful as your clients are successful.

The other thing to keep in mind is that your accounts receivable is what your customers will want to stretch out as long as possible. Your account receivable is their accounts payable!

The best way to get your receivables paid fast is persistent, constant communication. The cliché “the squeaky wheel gets the grease” applies here.

A large bad debt could cripple your business.

Now, let us examine…

Average Days Payable

This is a measurement of how long you take to pay your supplier bills, on average.

For this Key Ratio, longer is better.

Why? Because it means you are holding onto your cash longer.

However, you will not want to jeopardize your relationships with your suppliers.

You calculate average days payable as follows:

Opening accounts payable plus closing accounts payable (for the period) divided by two.

Take the average as above times the number of days in the period and divide that by the Total Cost of Goods Sold for the period.

Now, we can summarize all three of the above ratios into one number…

Cash Conversion Cycle

Your cash conversion cycle is the number of days, on average, it takes to convert your working capital into cash.

Here is how you calculate this ratio:

You simply add your Average Days Inventory to your Average Days Receivable and then subtract your Average Days Payable.

Let us assume you take 60 days on average to sell your inventory, and 20 days on average to collect your receivables, and 40 days on average to pay your supplier bills.

Your Cash Conversion Cycle is 60 + 20 – 35 = 45 days.

Is it possible to have a negative Cash Conversion Cycle?


Let us say you turn your inventory every 20 days and collect your accounts receivable in 15 days and take 40 days to pay your bills.

Your Cash Conversion Cycle will be: 20 + 15 – 40 = negative 5 days.

This is awesome, and the sign of an extremely healthy business.

Thanks for reading…


Critical Ratios You Must Track In Your Business For Success

Your monthly financial statements tell you a story….in the language of numbers…

Every business has three main financial statements:

  1. The Balance Sheet
  2. The Income Statement
  3. The Statement of Cash Flows

The Balance is the main statement. What? Not the Income Statement?

Yes, it is true that most businesspeople will focus most of their attention on the Income Statement.

They do this because the Income Statement shows the results of activities over a period of time – a month, a quarter, a year.

The Balance Sheet has all the information to determine the heath of a business at a specific point in time.

Did you know that the Income Statement and Statement of Cash Flows are each derived from the Balance Sheet?

The Balance Sheet is the fulcrum of the three statements.

The Big Picture

The story that your financial statements are telling you starts with the big picture.

Let us break it down…

Your Balance Sheet has three main sections:

  1. Assets
  2. Liabilities
  3. Equity

Assets are what you own.

These can be further segregated into Current Assets, Fixed Assets, and Investments and Intangible Assets.

Liabilities are what you owe.

They can be segregated into Current Liabilities (due within one year), and long-term liabilities.

The difference between your assets (what you own) and your liabilities (what you owe) is your equity.

A simple way to envision this – imagine all you own is a house. You paid $300,000. This is your asset, what you own. You have a mortgage of $210,000. This is your liability, what you owe.

Your equity is simply the difference between the two, or $90,000 in this example.

You sell your house for $300,000 and pay off your mortgage of $210,000 and you pocket $90,000.


Your Income Statement is made up of two main sections – revenue (the inflows into your business), and expenses (the outflows from your business).

The difference between the two is your Net Profit.


So, now we have a Big Picture emerging – by knowing these five main sections of these two financial statements.

By looking at the Balance Sheet, we can determine what we own (assets), what we owe (liabilities), and the difference between the two (equity).

In examining the Income Statement, we can see what revenues flowed into our business, and what expenses flowed out of our business, and lastly how much profit we made.

That is the Big Picture…

Now let us get more detailed…and talk about ratios…

Ratio Analysis Deepens the Story

By looking at ratios in your business, we can start to interpret the “story of your business.”

Ratios come from the main sections of your financial statements. They tell us specific details about your business that we cannot glean from just looking at the five main sections…

By understanding exactly what they mean we can determine the overall health of our business.

From there we can make decisions to improve it.

What are the main ratios we should be looking at for most businesses?

Liquidity Ratios

Liquidity Ratios provide an early warning for a business unable to meet its current liabilities when they come due.

A current liability is defined as something due within one year. These include things like wages payable, accounts payable, taxes payable, and loan payments.

A current liability is paid with a current asset. Current assets are either cash in the bank or things that will convert to cash quickly. For example, accounts receivable collected and inventory when sold.

The current ratio is simply your current assets divided by your current liabilities.

One rule of thumb is that a current ratio of 2:1 or greater is extremely healthy.

A 2:1 current ratio means that for every $1 in current liabilities you have $2 in current assets to pay them. It means you are liquid.

Another way to think about it is that by being liquid you have enough current assets to pay your current liabilities as they become due.

By having $2 for every $1 in current liabilities means you are well covered.

Now let us look at…

Profitability Ratios

Three important profitability ratios are:

  1. Gross profit margin
  2. Net profit margin
  3. Return on equity.
Gross Profit Margin

Gross profit margin is the amount of profit left over after deducting your direct costs of producing or purchasing your goods and services.

Gross profit is needed to pay for your operating overhead. It needs to be high enough to cover all your overhead plus a profit.

Every industry will have a different gross profit margin percentage that will be normal in that industry.

Things that can lower your gross profit margin to a dangerous level include:

  • Sales discounting
  • Inefficient production costs
  • Venders for your purchases that are charging too much.
  • Venders delivering goods with poor quality.

Every business must measure their Gross Profit Margin by product line. In this way, you can monitor which product lines are most profitable in terms of both sales volume and the gross margin percentage.

Things that can increase your Gross Profit Margin include:

  1. Price increases especially when there is no loss in sales volume.
  2. Outsourcing manufacturing especially to a low-cost jurisdiction.
  3. Eliminating quality issues in either production in house or from your venders.

Next, we will look at…

Net Profit Margin

Every business needs to have overhead to run. These are indirect costs that are usually fixed in nature.

Some examples of overhead include:

  1. Management salaries.
  2. Rent.
  3. Insurance.
  4. Office Supplies.

Your Gross Profit must be enough to cover all of these fixed overhead expenses plus your profit.

Ways to increase your net profit include:

  1. Turn fixed expenses (as much as possible) into variable expenses.
  2. Find venders who will give you the same result for less money.
  3. Outsource as much as you are able to low-cost jurisdictions.

One of the things that happens to all businesses over time is that the fixed costs creep upward. And they also can be sticky.

By “sticky” I mean when businesses enter into longer term contracts that bind them to certain requirements that may no longer be needed.

What can happen is that you incur a fixed cost that you needed in the past, and now no longer do.

By not frequently examining your vendor relationships and agreements you may find you have fixed costs that are no longer even being used.

These can include things as expensive as office leases (more people are now working from home for instance) or software subscriptions for former employees that were not cancelled.

Now we will examine…

Return on Equity

Return on equity is expressed as a percentage of how much the business is earning in relation to its owners’ equity.

It is calculated by dividing the Net Profit by the Shareholders Equity and then multiplying this by 100 to represent it as a percentage.

A higher percentage is of course better, and a measurement of the reward being earned for the shareholders’ investment risk.

In Summary

Looking only at the larger numbers in the five main areas of your financial statements – Assets, Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses – can be difficult to see patterns.

By expressing them as ratios, often a percentage, and understanding what they mean you can start to guide your business better.

A great accountant is someone who will interpret the numbers for you. He or she is like your co-pilot and they can help you see things that are otherwise incomprehensible.

Next week I will talk about Activity Ratios and Leverage Ratios.

Thanks for reading….


Powerful Game Changing Ratio to Monitor in Tough Times

An often-overlooked ratio to track is a combination of three other ratios…

Once you calculate the other three you simply add the three to get this Turbo Ratio that I recommend all businesses with accounts receivable and inventory track.

So, what is it called?

It is called…

Your Cash Conversion Cycle

It is the measurement of how many days on average it is taking your company to convert sales into cash.

It is the combination of three separate ratios:

  1. Days Receivable – the number of days on average it takes to collect your accounts receivable.
  2. Days Inventory – the number of days on average it takes to sell your inventory.
  3. Days Payable – the number of days on average you take to pay your bills.

Let us go through each of these three ratios…

Your Days Receivable

Here the lower the number of days the faster you are converting your receivables in cash.

You need the following numbers to calculate your days receivable ratio:

  1. Opening balance of your accounts receivable, at the beginning of the month
  2. Closing balance of your accounts receivable at the end of the month
  3. Your monthly sales on credit (non-cash sales)

Add your opening accounts receivable balance to your closing accounts receivable balance and divide by 2.

Take that number and divide by your total credit sales for the month.

Multiply that number by the number of days in the month.

Accounts receivable opening balance = $100,000

Accounts receivable closing balance = $200,000

Average accounts receivable balance = ($100,000 + $200,000)/2 = $150,000

Sales for the month = $300,000

Days in the month = 30

$150,000/$300,000 x 30 = 15 days

Now let us look at the next ratio…

Your Days Inventory

Here as well, a lower number of days is better for your cash-flow.

You need the following numbers to calculate your Days Inventory ratio:

  1. Opening balance of your inventory, at the beginning of the month
  2. Closing balance of your inventory, at the end of the month
  3. Your Cost of Goods Sold for the month.

Add your opening inventory balance to your closing inventory balance and divide by 2.

Take that number and divide by your total Cost of Goods Sold for the month.

Multiply that number by the number of days in the month.

Inventory opening balance = $300,000

Inventory closing balance = $600,000

Average inventory balance = ($300,000 + $600,000)/2 = $450,000

Cost of Goods Sold for the month = $750,000

Days in the month = 30

$450,000/$750,000 x 30 = 18 days

On average it is taking you 18 days to turn your inventory over. In other words, to sell it.

Now let us look at the next ratio…

Your Days Payable

For this ratio, a higher number is better! Why? Because you are taking longer (i.e. more days) to pay your bills on average which means you are preserving cash for a longer period.

You need the following numbers to calculate your days payable ratio:

  1. Opening balance of your accounts payable, at the beginning of the month
  2. Closing balance of your accounts payable at the end of the month
  3. Your monthly Cost of Goods Sold

Add your opening accounts payable balance to your closing accounts payable balance and divide by 2.

Take that number and divide by your total Cost of Goods Sold for the month.

Multiply that number by the number of days in the month.

Accounts payable opening balance = $250,000

Accounts payable closing balance = $350,000

Average accounts payable balance = ($250,000 + $350,000)/2 = $300,000

Cost of goods sold for the month = $900,000

Days in the month = 10

$300,000/$900,000 x 30 = 10 days

Now, let us put it al together…

Your Cash Conversion Cycle

The formula for your cash conversion cycle is:

  1. Days receivable
  2. Days inventory
  3. Less – Days payable

Using our numbers from above we have:

Days receivable = 15 days

Days inventory = 18 days

Days payable = 10 days

Your Cash Conversion Cycle is 15 plus18 minus 10=23 days

Although this is a very crude measurement what it tells you is that on average you will convert your sales into cash in about 23 days.

In Closing

Remember the lower the number the better. Why? Intuitively you will want to convert accounts receivable and inventory to cash as quickly as possible. Less days to do so means cash is hitting your bank account more rapidly.

One other thing to keep in mind is that the Days payable number is more beneficial the higher it is! That is why it is subtracted in the Cash Conversion Cycle Formula.

The longer you take to pay your bills the more cash you have available to run your business. Here you will want to operate with integrity and not take too long to pay your suppliers. After all, they are essentially your partners in your business.

That said, it is fair if you take advantage of longer payment terms and wait as long as possible to pay.

Thank you for reading….